Aloe Vera Gel and Aloe Vera Juice
Aloe Vera Juice and Gel Processing Study American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 ISSN 1557-4989 © 2008 Science Publications Corresponding Author: C.T. Ramachandra, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, India Tel: +919449627325 Fax: +913222282244 502 Processing of Aloe Vera Leaf Gel: A Review C.T. Ramachandra and P. Srinivasa Rao Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, India Abstract: Proper scientific investigations on Aloe vera have gained more attention over the last decade due to its reputable, medicinal, pharmaceutical and food properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable scientific journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of Aloe vera lacking processing of leaf gel. Present processing techniques aims at producing best quality aloe products but end aloe products contain very little or virtually no active ingredients. Hence, appropriate processing techniques should be employed during processing in order to extend the use of aloe vera gel. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activity and the exploitation of aloe constituents. Key words: Cold process, Qmatrix process, whole leaf process, desiccant air dehydration, time temperature, sanitation process INTRODUCTION Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is a perennial plant of liliacea family with turgid green leaves joined at the stem in a rosette pattern. Aloe vera leaves are formed by a thick epidermis (skin) covered with cuticle surrounding the mesophyll, which can be differentiated into chlorenchyma cells and thinner walled cells forming the parenchyma (fillet). The parenchyma cells contain a transparent mucilaginous jelly which is referred to as Aloe vera gel. Potential use of aloe products often involves some type of processing, e.g. heating, dehydration and grinding. Processing may cause irreversible modifications to the polysaccharides, affecting their original structure which may promote important changes in the proposed physiological and pharmaceutical properties of these constituents. Processing of Aloe vera gel derived from the leaf pulp of the plant, has become a big industry worldwide due to the application in the food industry. It has been utilized as a resource of functional food, especially for the preparation of health drinks which contain Aloe vera gel and which have no laxative effects. It is also used in other food products, for example, milk, ice cream confectionery and so on. However, Aloe vera gel juice was not very popular due to their laxative effect and majority of them contained absolutely no active mucilaginous polysaccharides or acemannan. Although colour changes have little relation to the therapeutic effectiveness of stabilized gel, they are rarely acceptable psychologically to the user. The color change is totally unacceptable in some products. It therefore becomes imperative that a simple but efficient processing technique needs to be developed, especially in the aloe beverage industry, to improve product quality, to preserve and maintain almost all of the bioactive chemical entities naturally present in the plant during processing. The production process of aloe products involve crushing, grinding or pressing of the entire leaf of the Aloe vera plant to produce an Aloe vera juice, followed by various steps of filtration and stabilization of the juice. The resulting solution is then incorporated in or mixed with other solutions or agents to produce a pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food product. In the food industry, Aloe vera has been utilized as a resource of functional food, especially for the preparation of health food drinks and other beverages, including tea. The amount of Aloe vera that finds its application in the pharmaceutical industry in not negligible as far as the manufacturing of topical ointments, gel preparations, tablets and capsules are concerned. Aloe vera gel also finds its application in the cosmetic and toiletry industries, where it is used as a base for the preparation of creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos and facial cleaners. Unfortunately, because of improper processing procedures, many of these so-called aloe products contain, very little or virtually no active ingredients, Am. J. Agril. & Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 503 namely, mucopolysaccharides. In view of the known wide spectrum of biological activities possessed by the leaves of the Aloe vera plant and its wide spread use, it has become imperative that the leaf be processed with the aim of retaining essential bioactive components. The review aims to provide a succinct resume of information regarding Aloe vara to serve as a reference for further investigations about this potential ingredient, to develop an effective method for processing of Aloe vera leaf, in the process, preserve and maintain almost all of the bioactive chemical entities naturally present in the Aloe vera leaf. The analysis deals with biological activity of leaf gel, gel stabilization technique, heat treatment of leaf gel, processing methodologies like cold-process, whole leaf process Qmatrix process, activealoe process, desiccant air dehydration, total process Aloe vera and Time Temperature and Sanitation (TSS) process. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ALOE VERA The controversy over the identity of the active substance(s) in Aloe vera has not been settled. Also, various mechanisms have been proposed for the alleged healing properties of Aloe vera. Since no single definitive active ingredient has been found, it is commonly suggested that there may be some synergitic action between the polysaccharide base and other components. According to Mackee, vitamin D was the healing agent, but Row and Parks reported the absence of vitamin D. Morton suggested a theory stating the seeming efficacy of aloe pulp may be attributed to its high water content, i.e., 96%+, providing a means of making water available for injured tissue without sealing it off from the air. This recovery would explain the instant soothing effect of Aloe vera gel has on burns, but would not account for the long term effect of healing. The action of Aloe vera is simply due to its moisturizing and emollient effects, hence, its use in cosmetics. Various researchers reported that the effective components for wound healing may be tannic acid and a type of polysaccharide. Other researchers have also reported anti-inflammatory effects of complex polysaccharides, glycoproteines and sulfated polysaccharides. However, there are many examples in the literature indicating that polysaccharides can exhibit pharmacological and physiological activities without help from other components. It is therefore, logical that the mucilaginous gel of Aloe vera plant, which is essentially a polysaccharide, holds secrete to Aloe vera’s medicinal properties. Many researchers such as Collins and Collins, Fine and Brown and Crew have attributed pain-relieving properties to Aloe vera gel. It is virtually impossible to prevent contamination by the leaf exudates during commercial extraction of Aloe vera gel. It is also believed that the intact leaves anthraquinones and their derivatives may diffuse into the gel from the bundle sheath cells; this possibly supports the conclusion of Row et al., who states that the healing agent is passed from the rind into gel on standing. Davis, using the conductor-orchestra concept, explains the relationship that exists among over 200 biologically active compounds within Aloe vera. One of these molecules, a polysaccharide and acts as the conductor that leads a symphony composed of 200+ biologically active compounds. Davis concluded that, as the conductor, the polysaccharide modulates the biological activity between the surrounding orchestra molecules to work synergitically. In view of these findings, it has seen presumptuous for any scientific research to consider or even to postulate that any one substance is responsible for the biological activity seen in Aloe vera gel. Unfortunately, it is not easy to differentiate between a good quality product and one that has been adulterated. Although price can be a guide-the more expensive the Aloe vera, the better the product-this does not always apply. In the end, the key to judging Aloe vera is by results. The things that happens to make aloe products less desirable or cause it to become virtually non beneficial are stem from the harvesting of the leaves, processing and distribution of leaves. The freshly removed leaves must go directly into production or must be appropriately refrigerated to prevent a loss of biological activity, principally through the degradative decomposition of the gel matrix. The value of aloe further diminishes if the processing procedure applies too much heat for too long a time. Extended heating renders the product free from bacterial contamination but effectively destroys aloe’s mucopolysaccharide and consequently reduces its efficacy. For therapeutic purposes, the most efficacious Aloe vera is that derived from whole-leaf aloe and cold-processed. Aloe is not just aloe because the manufacturer says so. To assure that an aloe product at a price worth paying and to achieve the desired results, it is recommended to look for International Aloe Science Council (IASC) certification seal on literature and packaging. Another way to ascertain whether an Aloe vera product has a high healing capacity is to find out Am. J. Agril. & Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 504 the number of mucopolysaccharides (MPS) present. This is sometimes included on the labeling. The highest therapeutic value is found in product containing between 10,000 and 20,000 MPS per liter. GEL STABILIZATION TECHNIQUE Aloe vera gel is the mucilaginous jelly obtained from parenchyma cells of the Aloe vera plant. When exposed to air, the gel rapidly oxidizes, decomposes and looses much of its biological activities. Different researchers have described different processing techniques of the gel with regards to its sterilization and stabilization, i.e., cold processing or heat treatment. However, the fundamental principle underlying these processing techniques remains almost the same. Regardless of the relative quality of the plant, the best results are obtained when leaves are processed immediately after harvesting. This is because degradative decomposition of the gel matrix begins due to natural enzymatic reactions, as well as the growth of bacteria, due to the presence of oxygen. The entire process involves washing the freshly harvested Aloe vera leaves in a suitable bactericide, followed by processing of the leaves to mechanically separate the gel matrix from the outer cortex. The separation of the gel from the leaf could be facilitated by the addition of cellulose dissolving compounds, e.g., cellulose. Thus, the aloe liquid obtained is treated with activated carbon to decolourize the liquid and remove aloin and anthraquinones, which have laxative effects. This is especially so if the stabilized gel is to be used as a drink formulation for internal use. The resultant liquid is then subjected to various steps of filtration, sterilization and stabilization. The stabilized liquid, thus, obtained could be concentrated to reduce the amount of water or, alternatively, almost all of the water removed to yield a powder. In cold processing technique, the entire processing steps are accomplished without the application of heat. Coats reported the use of enzymes, like glucose oxidase and catalase, to inhibit the growth of aerobic organisms within Aloe vera gel and, thereby, sterilize it. Other sterilization steps reported in the cold processing includes exposing the gel to ultraviolet light, followed by a micron filtration. In the heat treatment processing, sterilization is achieved by subjecting the aloe liquid obtained from the activated carbon treatment to pasteurization at high temperature. Aloecorp has reported the biological activity of Aloe vera gel essentially remains intact when the gel is heated at 65°C for periods less than 15 min. Extended periods or higher temperatures have resulted in greatly reduced activity levels. They, however, suggested that the best method of pasteurization is HTST (High Temperature Shot Time), followed by flash cooling to 5°C or below. In all these processing techniques, stabilization can be achieved by the addition of preservatives and other additives. The use of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, citric acid, vitamin E in synergism and the resultant efficacy, has been reported. HEAT TREATMENT OF GEL Xiu Lian Chang et al. conducted research on the gel juice from Aloe vera to investigate the effects of heat treatment on bioactive substances including polysaccharide and barbaloin. The effect of methanol solvent on compositional variations of barbaloin was also taken into consideration. Results show that the polysaccharide from Aloe vera exhibited a maximal stability at 70°C decreasing either at higher or lower temperatures. Heating promoted a remarkable decrease in barbaloin content depending on temperature and time, more affected than polysaccharide of the gel juice from Aloe vera. Barbaloin is unstable when dissolved in methanol resulting in the transformation into a series of unidentified compounds, in addition to aloe emodin with the period of storage at 4°C in refrigerator. The effect of air-drying temperature (from 30 to 80°C) on dehydration curves and functional properties (water retention capacity, WRC; swelling, SW; fat adsorption capacity, FAC) of Aloe vera cubes has been investigated by Simal et al. A diffusion model taking into account sample shrinkage has been proposed and solved by using a finite difference method. The effective diffusivities estimated with the proposed model varied with the air-drying temperature according to the Arrhenius law except for the experiment carried out at 80°C, where case-hardening took place. Simulation of Aloe vera drying curves by using the model was accurate (percentage of explained variance (%var): 99.7±0.1%). Furthermore, drying kinetics of Aloe vera cubes of different sizes to those used to develop the model could be satisfactorily predicted (%var: 99.5±0.2%). The three studied functional properties exhibited a maximum when drying temperature was 40°C decreasing either at higher or lower temperatures. Physico-chemical modifications promoted by heat treatment and dehydration at different temperatures (30-80°C) on acemannan, a bioactive polysaccharide from Aloe vera parenchyma were evaluated by Antoni Femenia et al. Modification of acemannan, a storage Am. J. Agril. & Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 505 polysaccharide, was particularly significant when dehydration was performed above 60°C. Heating promoted marked changes in the average molecular weight of the bioactive polysaccharide, increasing from 45 kDa, in fresh aloe, to 75 kDa, for samples dehydrated at 70 and 80°C respectively. The importance of physico-chemical modifications detected in dehydrated Aloe vera parenchyma depends on temperature used during the drying process. Regarding the chemical composition, the bioactive polysaccharide acemannan underwent similar losses of mannosyl residues when dehydration was performed between 30 and 60°C, above the latter temperature, losses increased significantly. The physico-chemical alterations of the main type of polysaccharide may have important implications on the physiological activities attributed to the Aloe vera plant. PROCESSING OF ALOE VERA LEAVES Basic methods of processing Aloe vera leaves are · Traditional hand filleted Aloe processing · Whole leaf Aloe vera processing · Total process Aloe vera processing Traditional hand filleted aloe vera: In order to avoid contamination of internal fillet with the yellow sap, the traditional hand-filleting method of processing Aloe leaves was developed. In this method, the lower 1 inch of the leaf base (the white part attached to the large rosette stem of the plant), the tapering point (2-4 inch) of the leaf top and the short, sharp spines located along the leaf margins are removed by a sharp knife, then the knife, is introduced into the mucilage layer below the green rind avoiding the vascular bundles and the top rind is removed. The bottom rind is similarly removed and the rind parts, to which a significant amount of mucilage remains attached, are discarded. Another portion of the mucilage layer accumulated on the top of the filleting table. This is of critical concern because the highest concentration of potentially beneficial Aloe constituents are found in this mucilage, as this layer represents the constituents synthesized by the vascular bundle cells empowered by energy developed in the green (chlorophyll- containing) rind cells through suninduced photosynthesis. The materials of the mucilage layer, subsequent to their synthesis, are distributed to the storage cells (cellulose-reinforced hexagons) of the fillet, a process that is accompanied by dilution owing to the water (the major fillet constituent), which is stored in the fillet cells. The fillet consists of more than 99% water. The fillet is washed again ensuring that there is no possibility of bacterial contamination, after which, the fillet is inserted into the pulper. The pulper has a refrigerated system that reduces the temperature of the resulting juice for optimum conversion, when the holding tank is full; it is left for 24 h to decant. Each tank is scientifically analyzed and certified, which takes approximately 170 h. The way the inner gel is extracted from the leaf is very important. As mentioned above, the latex portion of the leaf is located between the rind and the inner gel. The gel should be removed from the leaf without disrupting this area so that little or no latex (aloin) gets into the gel. If latex does get into the gel, it makes the gel very bitter. This bitter taste can be distinguished from the vegetable taste of the inner gel with little experience. Just because Aloe juice is bitter, it does not mean that it contains 100% pure Aloe juice from the inner fillet. If the gel is extracted by mechanical methods, the Latex can mix with the inner gel resulting in a loss in purity. Only by hand filleting the leaf it is able to cleanly separate the gel from the rind. The gel is then ground to a liquid and the pulp is removed. All this is performed at the farm, so only freshest leaves are processed. The hand filleting method is very labour intensive. Owing to this fact, machines have been designed and employed which attempt to simulate the hand filleted techniques, but generally the product contains higher amounts of the anthraquinones laxatives than the traditional hand filleted approach. Whole leaf aloe vera processing: This whole leaf process employed in the making of aloe juice allows the cellulose (skin) to be dissolved, as well as measurable amounts of aloin is to be removed. This total procedure is done entirely by a cold process treatment. Maximum efficiency is thus assured, resulting in a product rich in polysaccharides. In this process, the base and tip are removed as previously delineated and then the leaf is cut into sections and ground into particulate slurry. The method for producing whole leaf Aloe vera begins by placing the whole leaf in a Fitz Mill grinding unit that pulverizes the entire leaf into a soup-like structure (Fig. 1). The material is then treated with, special chemical products which break down the hexagonal structure of the fillet releasing the constituents, by means of a series of coarse and screening filters, or passage through a juice press, the rind particles are removed, the expressed juice is then passed through various filtering columns which remove the undesirable laxative agents. This liquid is then pumped into large, stainless steel holding tanks that have been thoroughly cleaned and sanitized. Am. J. Agril. & Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 506 Fig. 1: Process flow diagram for whole leaf aloe vera processing Once the tank is filled, it is hooked-up to a depulping extractor. This machine removes the large pieces of pulp and leaves that the initial grinding process developed. The result is the separation of the Aloe vera liquid and the pulp, which consists of the particles of Aloe leaf that have been ground and the naturally occurring pulp in the Aloe gel. The second phase of processing consists of passing the Aloe liquid through a series of filters that remove the aloin and aloe emodin (bitter-tasting, harsh laxatives) as well as any microscopic traces of leaves, sand or other particles. A press filter is used during this phase. First, the press filter is attached to the storage tank containing the pre-filtered Aloe liquid. The press filter's carbon-coated plates absorb the aloin and aloe emodin that is a byproduct of grinding the whole leaf. The Aloe liquid is continually passed through the filter press until 99% of the aloin and aloe emodin are removed. This filtered product is then placed in a second holding tank. At this point, a press filter containing five micron filter paper is attached to this holding tank. The Aloe liquid is passed through this filter medium until it shows no signs of residue. Cold filtration processing is then done as final purification procedure before the Aloe liquid is ready for stabilization. This process, performed properly, can produce a constituent-rich juice (generally containing three times or more constituents than hand filleted juice), which should be virtually free from the laxative anthraquinones, this process was developed in the 1980’s. Total process aloe vera processing: In this new revolutionary approach, The Aloe leaves are hand filleted by the traditional, old fashioned, labour intensive method. Then the green rinds and the mucilage layer from the tabletop are processed by a newly developed propriety methodology. A combination of the products produced by these two procedures produces an aloe product called Total Process Aloe, which contains an enviably high concentration of desirable constituents, which are virtually free from undesirable laxative anthraquinones. The traditional Hand-Fillet methodology, coupled with the newly developed proprietary handling of the refuse of the traditional methods (green rinds and tabletop mucilage) and a geographical area where aloe plants thrive have been combined in achieving the superior quality of Total Process Aloe. Total Process Aloe contains considerably higher concentrations of total solids, calcium, magnesium and malic acid, the major parameters of quality utilized and recommended by the International Aloe Science Council (IASC) for certification. MAJOR UNIT OPERATIONS IN PROCESSING OF ALOE VERA LEAF GEL Reception of raw materials: The Aloe vera leaves after harvesting were preferably transported in refrigerated vans from the field to the processing place. The leaves should be sound, undamaged, mold/rot free and matured (3-4 years) in order to keep all the active ingredients in full concentration. However, the composition of these active ingredients are subtly affected by seasonal, climatic and soil variations. One important factor that must be considered is the handling/treatment of the leaves after its harvesting because the decomposition of the gel matrix occurs on Am. J. Agril. & Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 507 cutting due to natural enzymatic reactions and the activity of bacteria that are normally present on the leaves. This degradative process can adversely affect the quality of the end product. Therefore, there is a need to carefully work towards refrigerating the freshly removed leaves within 4-6 h or get the raw material directly into production. Some information regarding the quality of a batch of Aloe leaves can be obtained by visual inspection (Fig. 2). Filleting operation: The losses of biological activity appeared to be the result of enzymatic activity after the aloe leaf was removed from the plant. In fact, it was shown that the aloe gel, once extracted from the leaf, had greater stability than the gel left in the leaf. In order to avoid the decomposition of the biological activity, the filleting operation must be completed within 36 h of harvesting the leaves. In the other hand, the anthraquinone was one important factor leading to nonenzymatic browning in aloe gel product. Grinding/homogenization: The major steps in this process include crushing or grinding. The aloe gel fillets should be crushed and homogenized using a commercial high speed tissue crusher at room Fig. 2: Processing flow diagram of single-strength Aloe vera gel juice production temperature (25°C). Due to the reaction of enzymatic browning, the longer the crushing/grinding time, the higher the browning index in Aloe vera gel juice. Therefore, crushing or grinding should be shortened within 10-20 min in order to avoid the enzymatic browning reaction of Aloe vera gel. Addition of pectolytic enzyme: Enzymatic treatment of Aloe vera gel for a long duration prior to processing is detrimental to biologically active compound such as polysaccharide which is the single most important constituent in aloe. Many researches have been done on the polysaccharides[21,22,23]. It has been reported that the enzyme treatment at 50°C and within 20 min did not induce the loss of biological activity of polysaccharide in Aloe vera gel. Filtration: This operation influences on the stability of Aloe vera gel juice. For example, the product showed the sedimentation of particles as the filtration operation lost its control. Addition of vitamin C and citric acid: The unpasteurized aloe gel juice was fortified with vitamin C and citric acid to avoid browning reaction, to improve the flavor of Aloe vera gel juice and to stabilize the juice[25,26,27,28]. The pH of aloe gel juice was adjusted between 3.0 and 3.5 by adding citric acid to improve the flavour of Aloe vera gel juice. Dearation: The aim of dearation step is to avoid the oxidation of ascorbic acid, which eventually improves the shelf life of the Aloe vera gel juice. Pasteurization: Like the process of other vegetable juice, this step may affect the taste, appearance and the content of biological activity of aloe gel product. HTST treatment (at 85-95°C for 1-2 min) is an effective method to avoid the bad flavour and the loss of biological activity of the Aloe vera gel. Flash cooling: After pasteurization, the juice is flash cooled to 5°C or below within 10-15 sec. This is a crucial step to preserve biological activity of the Aloe vera gel. Storage: Relative humidity and temperature are two most important environmental parameters that affect product quality. Those two parameters can also affect the amount of the volatile substances of the juice absorbed by the packaging material and consequently, affect the shelf-life of the product[32,33]. Am. J. Agril. & Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 508 TIME TEMPERATURE AND SANITATION (TTS) PROCESS The stages of this innovative process technology is discussed hereunder Timing of leaf process: Leaves show losses of biological activity beginning at 6 h following the harvest when the leaves are stored at ambient temperatures. A decrease in activity is also evident when the leaves are stored refrigerated, even though the rate of activity loss is greatly reduced. The losses of activity appear to be result of enzymatic activity after the leaf is removed from the plant. In fact it has been shown that the gel, once extracted from the leaf, has greater stability than gel which is left in the leaf. This means that shipping of leaves, even at refrigerated temperatures, will result in loss of biological activity. The overall timing of TTS production phase are extremely critical. The processing must be completed within 36 h of harvesting of leaves. Leaf harvesting and handling: Biological activity is also due to the microbial decay of the gel. The first exposure of the inner gel to microbes is when the leaves are harvested from the plant. Leaves in which the base is not intact and sealed will greatly increase the microbial counts in the finished product. To prevent contamination of the gel, the leaves are handled carefully and soaked in a food grade sanitizer which effectively reduces the microbial count in the leaf exterior to acceptable levels. Flash cooling: As a crucial step to preserve biological activity, the gel should be cooled below 5°C in 10 to 15 sec following the gel extraction. Rapid cooling leads to enzymatic and microbial deterioration of the gel, but also aids in reducing the microbial counts in the product. Pasteurization: Biological activity remains active when the gel is heated at 65°C for periods of less than 15 min. Extended periods or higher temperatures will results in greatly reduced activity levels. The best method of pasteurization is HTST (High Temperature Short Time), which expose the gel to elevated temperatures for periods of 1 to 3 min. Once heated the gel is flash cooled to 5°C or below. Concentration: The gel obtained using the pasteurization and flash cooling methods can be concentrated under vacuum without the loss of biological activity. The concentration operation must be conducted under 125 mm mercury vacuum at temperature below 50°C and must not exceed 2 min. Higher vacuum and temperature will cause activity loss, as will extend concentration times. Freeze or spray drying: The concentrated product can then be freeze-dried at temperature between -45 and 30°C or can be spray dried with product temperature below 60°C without the loss in biological activity. DESICCANT DEHYDRATION PROCESS This system employs a low-tech procedure used for many years to dehydrate foods. The pure intact aloe fillets are first washed so that the first remaining aloin is removed. Then they are placed into a desiccant dehydration chamber where desired level of relative humidity and temperatures are maintained. Here the desiccant air is passed over the fillets to dry them. They come out of the chamber looking a little like a loofah sponge. This material is then ground to powder and packed. By using this several important objectives are achieved. There is no concentration of the aloe gel. There by eliminating one step of the process. When the aloe is gently dried in the natural fillet form, the macromolecules do not break down like they do with mechanical pressing. The result is when the powder is re-hydrated, it comes back to its natural slippery form it had inside the leaf. It is generally believed that these delicate macromolecules are responsible for many Aloe veras’ proteins. Because there is no need to pre-treat or pre-concentrate the aloe, there are no residual preservatives present in the final powder. QMATRIX PROCESS (ALOECORP) Qmatrix drying is 4th generation dehydration technology, which also includes microwave and radio frequency drying. Microwave and radio frequency drying are not appropriate for aloe as they can deacetylate aloe polysaccharides and denature proteins. For high quality foods, freeze-drying is traditionally used but it is relatively expensive (up to 10 times that of forced air dryers) and is limited to relatively small throughputs. Spray drying can be used for large throughput but the quality of the resultant product is inferior to that produced by freeze-drying due to volatile losses and heat damage. The Qmatrix process is a novel proprietary method of dehydration in enabling the dehydration of aloe while maintaining its integrity with respect to flavour, colour and nutrients. It is comparable to freeze drying in quality aspects but Am. J. Agril. & Biol. Sci., 3 (2): 502-510, 2008 509 without the high operation costs (http://www. aloecorp.com). Advantages of this process: · Unique in the Aloe industry · Exclusive to Aloecorp · Gentle low temperature/short time drying · Superior sensory attributes retained (Academic study) · Superior retention of nutrients and bioactivity (Academic study) · Atmospheric pressure (no vacuum) · Energy efficient (Green) · Environmentally friendly (Green) · Superior solubility characteristics · New proprietary products due to versatility Solubility analysis of Qmatrix process: Spray dried aloe gel powder solubility was compared with Qmatrix processed powder. Equal quantities of powders were added at the same time to the same volume of room temperature water. Spray dried aloe clumps and floats whereas Qmatrix processed powder immediately disperse and settle to the bottom of the vessel. After 15 sec of gentle stirring the Qmatrix processed material is completely in solution while spray dried powder is still clumped on the surface. ACTIVEALOE PROCESS Activealoe is Aloe vera manufactured by a patented process, developed using bioactivity guided research. The unique characteristics are as follows: · Polysaccharide guarantee of not less than 10% by weight solids · Controlled digestion of polysaccharides to enhance bioactivity · Rapid processing to prevent breakdown of bioactive components · Extensively tested and proven biologically active Development of Activealoe process: Univera Pharmaceuticals investigated the role molecular weight played in the biological activity of aloe polysaccharides in order to develop a processing method that would retain and enhance the biological activity of native aloe resulting in the patented processing methods now used exclusively by Aloecorp. CONCLUSIONS A review on processing of Aloe vera leaf gel has revealed Aloe vera as a highly potential functional and valuable ingredient that exhibits relatively impressive biological functions of great interest in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. It also revealed the present processing technologies viz., gel stabilization technique, biological activity of aloe leaf gel and the effect of heat treatment on various constituents of gel. The process technologies like desiccant dehydration of aloe cubes, Qmatrix process, low temperature short time heat treatment process, activealoe process, Time Temperature and Sanitation Process, Total Process Aloe vera are the potential innovative process technologies. REFERENCES 1. Leung, A.Y., 1978. Aloe vera in cosmetics. Excelsa, 8: 65-68. 2. Mackee, G.M., 1938. X-ray and Radium in the Treatment of Diseases of the Skin. Lea and Febiger (Eds.). Philadelphia, PA, pp: 319-320. 3. Row, T.D. and L.M. Parks, 1941. 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Kinetics of ascorbic acid oxidation as a function of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature. J. Food Sci., 47: 765-767, 773. 26. Kacem, B., R.F. Mathews, P.G. Grandall and J.A. Cornell, 1987. Nonenzymatic browning in aseptic packaged orange juice and orange drinks. Effect of amino acids, dearation and anaerobic storage. J. Food Sci., 52: 1665-1667, 1672. 27. Kennedy, F.C., Z.S. Rivera, L.L. Lloyd, F.P. Warner and K. Jumel, 1992. L-ascorbic acid stability in aseptically processed orange juice in tetra brick cartons and the effect of oxygen. Food Chem., 45: 327-331. 28. Tramell, D.J., D.E. Dalsis and C.T. Malone, 1986. Effect of oxygen on taste, ascorbic acid loss and browning for HTST-Pasteurized, single-strength orange juice. J. Food Sci., 51: 1021-1023. 29. Chan, H.T., Jr. and C.G. Cavaletto, 1986. Effects of dearation and storage temperature on quality of aseptically packaged guava puree. J. Food Sci., 51: 165-168. 30. Eshun, K., 2003. Studies on aloe vera gel: Its application in beverage preparation and quality assessment. Thesis submitted to Food Science and Technology School of Southern Yangtze University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science. 31. Hernadez, R.J. and J.R. Giacin, 1998. Factors affecting permeation, sorption and migration processes in package-product systems. In: Food storage stability, Boca Raton, CRC Press, pp: 269- 329. 32. Hirose, K., B. Harte, J.R.Giacin, J. Miltz and C. Stine, 1988. Sorption of d-limonene by ealant films and effects on mechanical properties. In: Food and Packaging Interactions; ACS Symposium Series (vol. 365). 33. Sadler, G.D. and R.J. Braddock, 1990. Oxygen permeability of low density polyethylene as a function of limonene absorption. An approach to modelling flavour (Scalping). J. Food Sci., 55: 587-590.
History and Traditional Use:Aloe origned from arab words "allcoh", a traditional herb from ancient Egypt, its effects identified by people of ancient Egypt and called as "Secret Plant".Aloe vera has been in use for thousands of years, and is mentioned in records as long ago as 1750 B.C. Use of the plant is thought to have originated in Egypt or the Middle East. It was reputedly used in Egyptian embalming procedures, as drawings of Aloe vera have been found on cave walls in the region. Legend has it that Aloe vera was one of Cleopatra's secrets for keeping her skin soft. Pliny and Dioscorides of ancient Greece wrote of the healing effects of this plant. Additionally, Alexander the Great is said to have acquired Madagascar so that he could utilize the Aloe vera growing there to treat soldiers' wounds. It is also a remedy which has long been used in the Indian practice of Ayurvedic medicine.In the United States, Aloe vera was in use by the early 1800s, but primarily as a laxative. A turning point occurred in the mid-1930s, when a woman with chronic and severe dermatitis resulting from x-ray treatments was healed by an application of Aloe vera leaf gel. Success with this patient encouraged trials with others suffering from radiation burns. Evidence of the effectiveness remained anecdotal until 1953, when Lushbaugh and Hale produced a convincing study, using Aloe vera to treat beta radiation lesions in rats. Other experimental protocols have been carried out using animals since that time, but there is little human research data to describe the degree of effectiveness of Aloe vera treatment. Some evidence suggests that it is especially helpful in the elderly and other people with impaired health or failing immune systems.Aloe gel has been used to treat inflammation for more than 2,500 years. The fresh gel is widely used as a folk medicine for minor burns and sunburn, as well as minor cuts and scrapes. Aloe gel is also used in beverages commonly sold as "aloe juice". Aloe gel, mixed with water, citric acid, fruit juices, and preservatives is also marketed as "aloe juice", touted as a digestive aid or folk remedy for arthritis, stomach ulcers, diabetes, and other conditions.Aloe Vera Leaf is also known by the names Indian Alces, Kumari, Ghirita, Gawarpaltra, and Cape Aloes. Aloe is a perennial succulent native to East and South Africa. It is cultivated in the West Indies and other tropical countries. The tissue in the center of the Aloe Leaf contains a gel which yields aloe gel (or aloe vera gel). The word Aloe is derived from the Arabic word "alloeh", which means shiny & bitter. Aloe is believed to have been used to preserve the body of Jesus Christ. References to its use as a healing agent can be found in early Egyptian, Chinese, Greek, Indian and Christian literature. Legend says that it was the desire for Aloe plants that caused Alexander the Great to conquer the island of Socotra, where Aloe was cultivated in the fourth century B.C. Aloe Vera Leaf is also thought to have been one of Cleopatra's beauty secrets. The Greeks and Romans used the gel for wounds. In Africa, hunters sometimes would rub Aloe juice on their bodies to reduce sweating and to mask human scent. In India, it has been used by herbalists to treat intestinal infections, suppressed menses, and colic. Aloe Vera Leaf has been historically used for many of the same conditions for which it is still used today - particularly constipation and minor cuts & burns. And Aloe is one of the easiest house plants to grow. Aloe Vera Leaf is also taken internally for stomach disorders. Dried Aloe latex, a substance derived from the leaf, is a strong laxative. When applied externally, Aloe Vera Leaf restores skin tissues and may aid the healing of burns & sores. It can also be used on blemishes & dandruff. Used cosmetically, Aloe Vera Leaf softens the skin. Modern doctors have also used Aloe Leaf for x-ray burns, sunburn, chemical burns, first degree burns, traumatized tissue, decibitus ulcers or bedsores, skin inflammation, stomach ulcers, herpes simplex, periodontal surgery, insect bites & stings, irritating plant stings, and other minor skin manifestations. Topical applications have included this herbs inclusion in many over-the-counter lotions, poultices, salves, shampoos, and sprays. Aloe Leaf had shown outstanding results in treating facial edema (swelling). When used as a mouth rinse, it was effective for cold spores and lockjaw. Two small controlled human trials have found that Aloe Vera Leaf, either alone or in combination with the oral hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide, effectively lowers blood sugar in people with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Primary chemical characteristics of this herb include aloins, anthraquinones, barbaloin, polysaccharides, and salicylic acids. Aloin, obtained from the gel in the leaf, are largely responsible for the plant's healing properties. The plant also contains vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C, niacinamide, choline, calcium, iron, lecithin, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc. The common name Aloe Vera includes the species Aloe ferex and Aloe ferox, which are used interchangeably with Aloe Vera. Aloe barbadensis is the same species as Aloe Vera.Aloe is the source of two products that are completely different in their chemical composition and their therapeutic properties but which have very similar names that are sometimes interchanged. Aloe (aloe vera) gel or mucilage is a thin, clear, jellylike material obtained from the so-called parenchymal tissue making up the inner portion of aloe leaves. It is prepared from the leaf by various procedures, all of which involve its separation not only from the inner cellular debris but, especially, from specialized cells known as pericyclic tubules that occur just beneath the epidermis or rind of these same leaves. Such cells contain a bitter yellow latex or juice that is dried to produce the pharmaceutical product known as aloe, an active cathartic.Aloe gel (mucilage) is used both externally and internally for its wound-healing properties and as a general tonic or cure-all. This is the aloe product commonly incorporated in a wide variety of non-laxative medication and cosmetic products. Aloe latex or juice, usually in its dried form, is employed as a potent cathartic. Unfortunately, the mechanical separation processes employed are often not completely effective. As such, aloe gel is sometimes contaminated with aloe latex, thus inducing an unwanted laxative effect following consumption of the so-called gel. In addition, advertisements prepared by copywriters who do not understand the vast difference between aloe gel and aloe juice often use the word juice to describe the thin mucilaginous gel.To confuse matters even more thoroughly, there is still another product called aloe that is entirely different from the two just described. That is the aloe of the Bible, the so-called lignaloes or aloe wood, a fragrant wood from an entirely different plant that was once used as an incense. It has nothing to do with the aloe we are discussing except that some persons try to glamorize aloe gel by incorrectly ascribing to it a biblical origin. The names may be the same, but the plants referred to are not. Actually, aloe latex has been used as a laxative for about eighteen centuries, but neither it nor aloe gel is referred to in the Bible.Mythological:For more than 3,500 years, healers and physicians have touted the benefits of this fragrant desert lily. There are about 200 species of aloe, but aloe vera, meaning (true aloe) in Latin, is considered the most effective healer. The leaf of the aloe contains a special gel or emollient that is used extensively in cosmetics and skin creams. Aloe gel is regarded as one of nature's best natural moisturizers. The juice is bitter and extracted for medicinal use.Queen Cleopatra regarded the gel as a fountain off youth and used it to preserve her skin against the ravages of the Egyptian sun. The Egyptians were also believed to have used the aloe plant in their embalming process.The Aloe originates from tropical Africa, where related species are used as an antidote to poison arrow wounds. It was known to Greeks and Romans, who also used the gel for wounds; one of Pliny's many recommendations was to rub leaves on "ulcerated male genitals." Aloe was a favorite purgative during the Middle Ages. In China, similar uses developed to those in the West, although only the gel is used; in India, the gel is a highly regarded cooling tonic. Aloe reached the West Indies in the 16th century and is widely cultivated there.In the East Indies, aloes are used as a varnish, to preserve wood from worms and other insects; and skins from insect bites, and even living animals are anointed with it for the same reason. The havoc committed by the white ants in India first suggested the trial of aloe juice, to protect wood from them; for which purpose the juice is either used as an extract, or in solution, by some solvent.Aloes have been found effectual in preserving ships from the ravages of the worm and the adhesion of barnacles. The resinous part of this juice is not soluble in water so the ship's bottom, for this purpose, is smeared with a composition of hepatic aloes, turpentine, tallow, and white lead, (equal parts). In proof of the efficacy off this method, 2 planks of equal thickness, and cut off the same tree, were placed under water, one in its natural state, and the other smeared with the composition. On taking them up, after being immersed 8 months, the latter was found to be perfect as at first, while the former was entirely penetrated with insects, and in a state of absolute rottenness.One blade of aloe can be used for weeks. The severed end of the blade is self healing. The thin film can easily be broken with each use.The juice of aloes was formerly used in Eastern countries in embalming and to preserve dead bodies from putrefaction.Aloe has been used at least 2,000 years by the Chinese, who call aloe vera "Lu Hui". Today, used against radiation burns, thermal burns, chapped and dry skin, leg ulcers, skin disorders, a laxative, burns in general, and to help heal disorders of the stomach, liver, and spleen and to expel worms Aloe origned from arab words "allcoh", a traditional herb from ancient Egypt, its effects identified by people of ancient Egypt and called as "Secret Plant"......seminal trace...aloes extract.Aloe vera extract.CAS No.094349-62-9.084837-08-1.Curacao aloes Extract.Aloe vera (L) Extract.10:1.Aloe barbadensis extract.Aloe barbadensis Miller,Aloe ferox Miller.Aloe barbadensis Mill., extract; Aloe barbadensis, ext.; Chirukattali extract....Basic Botanical Info of Aloe:Aloe vera (L) Botanical source: Aloe barbadensis Miller, Aloe ferox Miller,etc. Order: LiliaceaeLatin Name: L. Aloe vera, Aloe barbadensis var miller, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Aloe vulgaris, Aloe vera var. lanzae, Aloe indica, Aloe barbadensis var. chinensis, Aloe vera var. wratislaviensis, Aloe elongata, Aloe vera var. littoralis, Aloe perfoliata var. vera, Aloe perfoliata var. barbadensis, Aloe flava, Aloe chinensis, Aloe barbadensis, Aloe lanzae. Common Names: Aloe vera, True Aloe,Aloe vera (L),Aloe Vera,Aloe vera syn. A. barbadensis,Aloes,Aloe Vera,Barbados Aloe,Curacao Aloe,Kumari,Lu Hui Synonyms: Aloe barbadensis (Mill.), Curacao aloes, Barbados aloes, first-aid plant, medicine plant Parts Used:Leaves exude a bitter liquid, which is dried and known as "bitter aloes." They also contain a clear gel, which is a soothing skin remedy.Basic Botanical Info of Aloe: Description and Plant Appearance: Phytochemicals and Constituents: History and Traditional Use: Current Status: Modern Uses Summary: Mechanism and Pharmacology: Applications and Combinations: Administration and Suggestions: Reseach update:Aloe vera How Searchi engine think about aloe?Description and Plant Appearance:Aloe vera, a member of the lily family, is a spiky, succulent, perennial plant. It is indigenous to eastern and southern Africa, but has been spread throughout many of the warmer regions of the world, and is also popularly grown indoors. There are about 300 identified species, but Aloe vera ("true aloe") is the most popular for medical applications. It has also been known as Aloe vulgaris ("common aloe") and Aloe barbadensis. The plant has yellow flowers and triangular, fleshy leaves with serrated edges that arise from a central base and may grow to nearly 2 ft (0.6 m) long. Each leaf is composed of three layers. A clear gel, that is the part of the plant used for topical application is contained within the cells of the generous inner portion. Anthraquinones, which exert a marked laxative effect, are contained in the bitter yellow sap of the middle leaf layer. The fibrous outer part of the leaf serves a protective function.A large succulent perennial plant growing up to 1.5 metres in height, with a strong fibrous root and a large stem supporting a rosette of narrow lanceolate leaves up to 60cm long. The leaves are whitish green on both sides and bear spiny teeth on the margins. The yellow to purplish drooping flowers grow in a long raceme at the top of the flower stalk. The fruit is a triangular capsule containing numerous seeds. It is native to East and South Africa and cultivated in the West Indies and other tropical areas.Aloe is one of the true heavyweights in medicinal herbs, and there is a surprising amount of good research regarding its benefits, which is not the case with many of the other herbs. If you don't have an aloe plant sitting on your kitchen windowsill, make it a point to pick one up next time you are out and about, because this is one truly amazing plant!Aloe has a nauseating bitter taste, rendering it unusable in cooking, but this very property is what protects it in the wild, as animals will move on to tastier treats. It is an easy plant to grow and requires little care, other than protecting it from frost. It resembles a cactus with its spiny, thick leaves, but it is really a member of the lily and onion families.Aloe requires temperatures above 40 degrees to grow properly, and due to this, most aloe plants are grown in containers that can be moved indoors when the cool weather approaches. It will tolerate poor soil and little water, and the growing conditions very much resemble those used for growing cactus, i.e. good drainage and as much sun as possible. In spring and summer, allow the soil to become moderately dry before watering, but in winter, let the soil dry completely before adding water. An aloe plant will survive in the same pot for many years, and it appears that aloes prefer somewhat crowded roots, so don't think you are doing this plant a favor by potting it up in a big, roomy container. If you must repot this plant, do it in the late winter or spring.Aloe can be propagated by seed or by removing the offshoots that grow at the base of the plant. The best way to remove these offshoots is to take the entire plant out of the pot, then separate the offshoots from the parent plant (they should have some roots of their own), returning the parent plant to its original container. Harvest the older outer leaves first and use to soothe skin problems. Please see Medicinal Uses below for further details.Parts used: Aloes is the evaporated liquid exuded from the cut leaf bases. The fresh gel is also used for topical applications.Collection: The bitter juice is obtained by mechanical or chemical means from the parenchyma tissue in the centre of the leaf, and the liquid evaporated.Aloe is bound to the Moon and water. In Africa, leaves have traditionally been hung in doorways to attract luck and protect from evil influences. A charged Aloe Vera plant growing in the kitchen is thought to protect against accidents involving fire, burns or heat, particularly in the area of the kitchen. A potted aloe plant growing in the workplace is believed to bring good luck.Cleopatra is said to have used fresh aloe gel every day to preserve her beauty, and Napoleon's wife, Josephine is reputed to have used a mixture of aloe and milk for her skin. The effects of aloe on the skin for cuts and burns have been known for centuries. No surprise, then, that aloe has been linked magically with beauty and healing. Snap a leaf and slice it open to use for either purpose, or mix with olive oil, milk, or vitamin E.Habitat and Cultivation: Native to eastern and southern Africa, aloe vera grows wild in the tropics and is cultivated extensively worldwide. (The plants grown as potted plants have a low anthraquinone content.) Aloe vera is propagated by breaking off small rooted plantlets. To collect the gel and bitter liquid, the leaves are cut and drained as required.Phytochemicals and Constituents:Main contents: aloe-emodin; aloin,C21H22O9; aloenin,C19H22O10,etc.Other Phytochemicals:Aloe barbadensis Miller also contains aloeemodin;isobarbaloin;5-hydroxyaloin A; resins about 12% and composed of aloeresitannol and cinnamic acid; aloe polysaccharide C222H620NS3O336P7 and some arabinose and rhamnose,etc. Aloe ferox Miller also contains 5-hydroxyaloin A;isobarbaloin;aloeresin A,aloeresin B,aloeresin C,aloeresin D and isoaloresin; feroxin A and feroxin B; feroxidin; aloesone; furoaloesone and feralolide,etc.Vitamin B12 source: Aloe vera is one of the only known natural vegetarian sources of Vitamin B12, and it contains many minerals vital to the growth process and healthy function of all the body's systems. Numerous studies worldwide indicate that aloe vera is a general tonic for the immune system, helping it to fight illness of all kinds. Various research studies are underway to explore the potential of aloe vera components to boost immunity and combat the HIV virus, and to treat certain types of cancer (particularly leukemia). It may even have a role to play in managing diabetes.Constituents Aloes: Hydroxyanthracene derivatives of the anthrone type (principally barbaloin); 7-hydroxyaloin isomers, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and their glycosides; chromone derivatives (aloesin and its derivatives aloeresins A and C, and the aglycone aloesone. Gel: glucomannan (a polysaccharide), steroids, organic acids, enzymes, antibiotic principles, amino acids, saponins, minerals.Biologic components:Aloe vera contains a wealth of substances that are biologically active. The laxative, and in large doses, purgative, effects of Aloe vera latex are attributable to a group of chemicals known as the anthraquinones. Aloin,Leaves of an aloe plant. (Photograph by Robert J. Huffman. Field Mark Publications. Reproduced by permission.) barbaloin, and aloe-emodin, and aloectic acid, are a few of the anthraquinones contained in the latex layer. The latest, and perhaps most exciting component discovered in Aloe vera is a biologically active polysaccharide known as acetylated mannose, or acemannan. This substance has been shown to be a highly effective immune stimulant, with activity against the viruses causing the flu, measles, and early stages of AIDS. It has been used effectively against some veterinary cancers, most notably sarcoma, and is being investigated as an agent to be used to treat cancer in humans. Acemannan is one of many saccharides contained in Aloe vera. Some of the others are arabinose, cellulose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. Prostaglandins are a third important set of compounds, and are thought to play a major role in wound healing. Aloe vera also contains fatty acids, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other substances. The interaction of all these components produces a favorable environment for wound healing.Current Status:Modern clinical use of aloe gel began in the 1930s, but favorable case histories did not provide conclusive evidence of its effectiveness. Recent studies have documented that aloe gel promotes wound healing and is of therapeutic value in thermal injuries and a variety of soft-tissue injuries. In animal studies, it prevented progressive skin damage that usually follows burns, frostbite, and electrical injuries. Aloe gel penetrates injured tissue, relieves pain and inflammation, and dilates capillaries, increasing blood supply to the injury. Ultimately, aloe gel increases both tensile strength at the wound site and healing activity in the space between cells, thus helping to promote recovery.Several animal studies failed to demonstrate aloe's anti-ulcer or antidiabetic potential, thus refuting some of its traditional uses. Studies of purified compounds from a species, A. arborescens (Kidachi aloe), however, did show an antidiabetic effect, as well as inhibition of stomach secretions and lesions. More research is needed.In 1994, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Aloe vera for the treatment of HIV. On-going studies worldwide show that Aloe taken in highly concentrated doses can stimulate the production of white blood cells that may help fight viruses and also tumours.Aloe vera contains protein, calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B12 and E, essential fatty acids and is naturally rich in:Vitamin C which helps maintain tone of blood vessels and promotes good circulation and is essential to the health of the adrenal gland which supports our body in times of stress.Amino acids which are chains of atoms constructing protein in our body.Enzymes, which are the life-principle in every live, organic atom and molecule of natural raw food, rejuvenate aged tissues and promote healthy skin.Germanium which is a mineral that some health authorities claim therapeutic benefits for: immunodeficiency, pain, cardiac disorders, circulatory disturbances and eye problems.Aloe vera juice is said to be one of the finest body cleansers, cleaning morbid matter from the stomach, liver, kidneys, spleen, bladder, and is considered the finest, known colon cleanser. Studies have shown that it is healing and soothing in the relief of indigestion, stomach distress and ulcers. People claim relief from arthritis, bladder and kidney infections; leg cramps, constipation, hemorrhoids, insomnia, and for vaginitis, it is said to be an excellent vaginal douche. An excellent internal tonic for energy and well being Aloe juice may add greatly to the strength of the food fed, digestive tract, skin, and overall good health and happiness.It is also used to ease heartburn, ulcers, diverticular disorders, and other types of digestive upset. It is used as an anti-inflammatory and may be taken internally as a remedy for certain digestive complaints. European folk medicine calls for using Aloe vera juice to relieve heartburn and ulcers. Preliminary research has shown promising results. Clinical trials in China indicate that certain compounds in Aloe vera reduce the secretion of stomach juices and the formation of lesions.Animal studies and anecdotal reports claim that drinking Aloe vera juice or taking it as a tablet or capsule can reduce swelling and inflammation in arthritic joints. Drinking Aloe vera juice may also help those asthmatic patients who are not dependent on cortico-steroids.In 1997, University of San Antonio researcher Jeremiah Herlihy, Ph.D., conducted a study to observe any negative effects of drinking Aloe daily. Rather than exhibiting negative effects, however, test animals receiving daily Aloe showed a remarkable reduction in leukemia, heart disease, and kidney disease. Dr. Herlihy concluded, "We found no indication of harm done to the rats even at high levels." In fact, the Aloe-drinking animals actually lived 25 percent longer than those in the control group (IASC Conference, Texas, 1997).There is no single ingredient that makes Aloe vera potent and healthful. Researcher Robert Davis, Ph.D., an endocrinologist-biologist, explains that fifteen different compound groups of nutrients work together to make the plant effective. This means that Aloe vera's effects cannot be synthesized easily in a laboratory. On the upside, this makes the plant useful across a wide spectrum of circumstances. And because the various elements that make Aloe effective are nutrients rather than drugs, Aloe juice may complement medical treatments. In fact some cancer patients state that Aloe vera seems to reduce nausea, increase energy, and may help to minimize low blood counts caused by chemotherapy or radiation.Aloe vera may help adults, children, and even pets receive more value from daily foods and supplements.Having disposed of these nomenclatural difficulties, let us return to the use of aloe gel (mucilage) as a wound-healing agent and all-around remedy. Although many sources agree that the gel possesses some activity in its fresh state, there is controversy over whether this activity is retained during storage. Commercial processors claim that the stability problem has been overcome, and a "stabilized" product is incorporated in a wide variety of preparations, including juices, gels, ointments, creams, lotions, and shampoos.However, at least one scientific test failed to verify any beneficial effects of a "stabilized" aloe vera gel on human cells. Fluid from fresh leaf sources was found to promote significantly the attachment and growth of normal human cells grown in artificial culture. It also enhanced the healing of wounded monolayers of the cells. On the other hand, the "stabilized" commercial product not only failed to induce such effects but actually proved toxic to the cultured cells. The investigators who carried out these studies concluded that commercially prepared aloe vera gel fractions "can markedly disrupt the in vitro attachment and growth of human cells."Review of several other studies led to the conclusion that a number of them did provide evidence to support the use of aloe vera gel, and some preparations containing it, for the treatment of various types of skin ulceration in humans and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. More recently, a cream base containing aloe was found effective in preserving circulation in the skin after frostbite injury. Stabilized aloe vera was shown to produce a dramatic acceleration of wound healing in patients who had undergone full-face dermabrasion.It is postulated that aloe may function in such cases by inhibiting bradykinin, a pain-producing agent; also, it apparently hinders the formation of thromboxane, whose activity is detrimental to burn wound healing. Aloe gel also has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Studies on the mechanism of action of aloe gel or partially purified extracts in vitro on skin wound-healing repair processes provides evidence that aloe stimulates fibroblast and epithelial cell growth, induces lectinlike responses in human immune cells, and stimulates neuronlike cell growth. Still, relatively little is known about the identity and stability of the ingredients responsible for these effects. A glycoprotein fraction has been shown to promote cell growth in human and animal cell media, while a polysaccharide fraction did not stimulate growth. Many compounds of aloe are probably subject to deterioration on storage, so use of the fresh gel is the only way to be certain of maximal activity.In addition, various commercial preparations often contain minimal amounts of aloe. One way to determine the relative quantity present is to determine the position of aloe in the list of ingredients stated on the label. If it is not near the top, the amount present is probably quite small. Also, be cautious about preparations labeled "aloe vera extract," which may be highly diluted or "reconstituted aloe vera," meaning that the product has been prepared from a powder or liquid concentrate.Aloe gel (often incorrectly designated "juice") is described in the popular literature as a cleanser, anesthetic, antiseptic, antipyretic, antipruritic, nutrient, moisturizer, and vasodilator and is also said to possess anti-inflammatory properties and to promote cell proliferation. Recommendations for internal use range from the treatment of coughs to constipation; externally aloe vera is used primarily for burns, for conditioning the skin, and even for headache. One Arkansas physician applied it to relieve the symptoms of poison ivy. The utility of aloe in treating many of these conditions has not been verified.Mixed results have been published on the traditional use of aloe juice in treating diabetes. A controlled clinical study involved seventy-seven volunteers who were administered one tablespoonful of aloe juice, twice a day for up to forty-two days. A significant reduction in blood sugar and triglyceride levels was observed in the treatment group. This conflicts with an earlier study that was unable to support benefit of claimed efficacy in diabetes mellitus or in gastric ulcers.In the 1990s, a body of scientific literature has arisen providing a rational scientific basis for aloe's use in treating minor wounds and burns. This provides a foundation to support an impressive body of folklore attesting to aloe's healing properties on external application.Many people keep a potted aloe plant on the windowsill in the kitchen so that a leaf can be cut off and the freshly exuded gel applied to minor burns. Since the safety of such procedures has never been questioned, it is a therapy that has much to recommend it. Also, the treatment is inexpensive and overcomes the potential problems of stability and retention of the gel's desirable properties following commercial processing and storage.Modern Uses Summary:Aloe yields two distinct medicinal sub-stances. The juice (drug aloe), which is obtained by cutting the leaves at their base, and a gel extracted by breaking the leaves themselves. The juice is a powerful cathartic, which is hardly suitable for medicinal use.The gel, on the other hand, is one of the most remarkable healing substances known. Applied locally it encourages skin regeneration and may be used directly on burns, cuts and wounds. It also has emollient properties. The gel is now available commercially but harsh solvents used in its extraction, and frequent adulteration, make many of these products unreliable. Aloe is easy to grow as a houseplant, and we recommend this as the best source.When taken internally, Aloe vera has a 'cleansing' effect on the body, by virtue of its action on the digestive tract. Held to be one of nature's most potent healers, it is particularly good for the digestive system and an effective preventative or treatment for irritable bowel syndrome and related disorders. All kinds of conditions respond to aloe taken internally: acne, arthritis, colds, Candida, chronic fatigue, inflammations, ulcers, viral infections and IBS to name but a few. Scientific use of Aloe in wound healing was first documented in 1935. Since then, there have been a number of studies showing its effectiveness as a treatment for burns and other wounds. Extracts of aloe vera first became popular as a skin healer. Aloe actually accelerates fibroblast development, which is necessary for collagen repair and wrinkle prevention. But recent research shows that this ancient remedy does rnuch more. It is a powerful detoxifier, antiseptic and tonic for the nervous system. It also has immune-boosting and antiviral properties. Exactly what the active ingredient is remains a bit of a mystery. Aloe vera is rich in mucopolysaccharides, one of which is called acemannan, but also contains lignins, enzymes and antiseptic agents plus vitamins, minerals, essential fats and amino acids. Research by Dr Jeffrey Bland found that adding aloe vera to one's daily diet improved digestion, absorption and elimination. As such, it is an aid to digestion.Beauty treatment: Aloe vera has a long history as a skin lotion -Cleopatra is said to have attributed her beauty to it.Western remedy: In the West, aloe vera first became popular in the 1950s when its ability to heal burns, in particular radiation burns, was discovered.First aid: Aloe vera is an excellent first aid remedy to keep in the home for burns, scrapes, scalds, and sunburn. A leaf broken off releases soothing gel, which may be applied to the affected part.Skin conditions: The gel is useful for almost any skin condition that needs soothing and astringing, and will help varicose veins to some degree.Ulcers: The protective and healing effect of aloe vera also works internally, and the gel can be used for peptic ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome.Laxative: The bitter yellow liquid in the leaves (bitter aloes) contains anthraquinones, which are strongly laxative. They cause the colon to contract, generally producing a bowel movement 8 - 12 hours after consumption. At low doses, the bitter properties of the herb stimulate the digestion. At higher doses, bitter aloes are laxative and purgative.Other medical uses: Abscess, Acne, Balanitis, Cervical cancer, Herpes, Lung cancer, Mouth ulcers, Wrinkles.Aloe Vera is a virtual necessity for minor emergencies. Aloe Vera is a healing plant used to treat sunburns, minor burns, scrapes, ulcers, arthritis and constipation. This herb has healing, soothing and cleansing properties making it an ideal addition to any medicine cabinet. And Aloe soothes the intestinal system, too. Parents have even applied Aloe gel to the finger tips of children who bite their nails in order to get them to break the habit.Aloe has been well known for centuries for its healing properties, and both oral intake and topical dressings have been documented to facilitate healing of any kind of skin wound, burn, or scald - even speeding recovery time after surgery. Situations to try it on include blisters, insect bites, rashes, sores, herpes, urticaria, athlete's foot, fungus, vaginal infections, conjunctivitis, sties, allergic reactions, and dry skin. The raw plant is best, but commercial preparations can also be used, especially for taking orally, as this plant tastes horrible. Other topical uses include acne, sunburn, frostbite (it appears to prevent decreased blood flow), shingles, screening out x-ray radiation, psoriasis, preventing scarring, rosacea, warts, wrinkles from aging, and eczema.Internally, aloe is showing real promise in the fight against AIDS, and the virus has become undetectable in some patients who used it on a regular basis, due to its immune system stimulant properties. It also seems to help prevent opportunistic infections in cases of HIV and AIDS. It appears to be of help in cancer patients (including lung cancer) by activating the white blood cells and promoting growth of non-cancerous cells. The National Cancer Institute has included Aloe Vera in their recommendations for increased testing because of these apparent cancer fighting properties. Taken orally, aloe also appears to work on heartburn, arthritis and rheumatism pain and asthma, and studies have shown that it has an effect on lowering blood sugar levels in diabetics. Other situations in which it appears to work when taken internally include congestion, intestinal worms, indigestion, stomach ulcers, colitis, hemorrhoids, liver problems such as cirrhosis and hepatitis, kidney infections, urinary tract infections, prostate problems, and as a general detoxifier. Lastly, many people who take aloe internally report just feeling better overall, which is in and of itself something of a testament to its remarkable properties.Commercially, aloe can be found in pills, sprays, ointments, lotions, liquids, drinks, jellies, and creams, to name a few of the thousands of products available. Unfortunately, the aloe industry is virtually unregulated, and some products that advertise aloe content actually have little to none. Therefore, if you are embarking on a regimen with aloe, you should become an avid reader of ingredients. Look for the word aloe to appear near the top of the ingredient list first and foremost, then follow the guidelines below:Few botanicals are as well known or as highly thought of as the Aloe vera plant. Throughout recorded history, it has been used to keep skin beautiful and restore it to health. A frequent moisturizing ingredient in cosmetics and hair care products, it also promotes the healing of burns and superficial wounds, but should not be used on deep or surgical wounds of punctures. Topical application has been successful in treatment of sunburn, frostbite, radiation injuries, some types of dermatitis, psoriasis, cuts, insect stings, poison ivy, ulcerations, abrasions, and other dermatologic problems. Healing is promoted by the anti-inflammatory components, including several glycoproteins and salicylates, and substances that stimulate growth of skin and connective tissue. Aloe vera contains a number of vitamins and minerals that are necessary to healing, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc. It also exerts antifungal and antibacterial effects, and thus helps to prevent wound infections. One study showed it to have a little more activity than the antiseptic silver sulfadiazine against a number of common bacteria that can infect the skin. It has moisturizing and pain relieving properties for the skin lesions, in addition to healing effects.Aloe vera gel products may also be used internally. They should not contain the laxative chemicals found in the latex layer. There is some evidence that Aloe vera juice has a beneficial effect on peptic ulcers, perhaps inhibiting the causative bacteria, Helicobacter pylori. It appears to have a soothing effect on the ulcer, and interferes with the release of hydrochloric acid by the stomach. Colitis and other conditions of the intestinal tract may also respond favorably to the internal use of gel products. Aloe vera has been shown to exert a stabilizing effect on blood sugar in studies done on mice, indicating a possible place for it in the treatment of diabetes. One study suggested that giving Aloe vera extract orally to patients with asthma who are not dependent on steroids could improve symptoms. A health care provider should be consulted about these uses. Other suggested, but insufficiently proven, indications for oral Aloe vera gel include prevention of kidney stones and relief of arthritis pain.Aloe vera products derived from the latex layer are taken orally for the laxative effect. They can cause painful contractions of the bowel if taken in high doses. Milder measures are recommended first.The concentration of the immune stimulant acemannan is variable in the natural plant, as well as gel and juice products, but it is also available in a purified, standardized, pharmaceutical grade form. An injectable type is used in veterinary medicine to treat fibrosarcoma and feline leukemia, a condition caused by a virus in the same family as AIDS.Mechanism and Pharmacology:Mechanism: How it works in the body?The properties of aloe vera mean that it is excellent as a vulnary or wound healer, mainly due to the anthraquinones, and the gel is particularly noted for its soothing quality when used topically on the skin. Internally the gel is also useful as a healer, particularly in the digestive system. Generally, the gel is good for the immune system. The laxative effect derives from the irritant nature of the yellow sap, which in lower doses stimulates the colon producing a bowel movement. However, in larger doses it acts as a purgative, giving a much more vigorous action, which can result in griping pains. New scientific interest is in the use of aloe vera for radiation burns.What makes it so powerful?Rich Nutrients: For a start, the gel contains 75 nutrients, and over 200 active ingredients - and that's just the ones that we know about. But it is the synergy of these constituents that is most important - as all of the elements combine together, the resulting whole is greater than the sum of the individual parts.Adaptogenic properties: Aloe has adaptogenic properties; that is, the body takes what it needs from the plant, benefiting the area that needs it most.Epithelial tissues effects: Aloe is effective in so many different areas because it works on the epithelial tissues, which form our skin, gut lining, bronchial tubes, and genital tract.Vitanmins and Phytochemicals: It is a rich source of vitamins, particularly A, C, and E, and one of the few plant sources of B12, which is particularly important for vegans and vegetarians. It also contains more than twenty of the minerals needed on a daily basis, such as magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium, calcium, sodium, and potassium. It contains twenty amino acids, including seven of the eight essential amino acids.Plant sterols and natural steroids: The essential fatty acids in Aloe are beneficial not only nutritionally (the only dietary sources are fish and some seeds), but also as anti-inflammatory agents. These are plant sterols, natural steroids with no detrimental side effects.Enzymes rich: It is high is enzymes, which are vital for every function of the body to occur, and yet are destroyed even at low heat, so lacking in a usual diet where most food is cooked before it is consumed.Lignin and penetrative abilities: Aloe contains a substance called lignin, which is renowned for its penetrative abilities. Aloe is not just working on the surface of the skin, like most skin creams, but reaches right down through to the layers where it is renewed.Natural cleansers: It contains saponins, natural cleansers that are anti-microbial, and effective in the treatment of bacteria, viruses, and yeast and fungal infections.Antiseptics: Aloe contains six natural antiseptics, so is effective in treating infection.Mucopolysaccharides: Mucopolysaccharides present in the gel are sugars that are found in every cell of our bodies. Aloe is one of the highest natural sources of these essential building blocks, which the body manufactures only during childhood.Natural painkillers: Aloe contains anthraquinones, which are natural painkillers.Preparations:Aloe gel can be obtained from the living plant. It is an ingredient in many sunscreens, skin creams, lotions, and other cosmetics. Some products boast of aloe content but contain too little to do any good. Aloe juice comes in various concentrations; highly concentrated products degrade readily. Read the product label for information on addition of carriers such as gums, sugars, or starches.Therapeutics and Pharmacology:Aloes is taken internally as a purgative, acting on the lower bowel. It may be used in atonic constipation although overdosage can result in diarrhoea, gastritis and nephritis. To avoid griping, it should be taken in conjunction with carminative and antispasmodic herbs. It is the 1,8-dihydroxyanthracene derivatives such as barbaloin which have a laxative effect. As glycosides They are not absorbed in the upper gut but break down to the active aglycone in the colon and rectum. Laxatives containing anthranoids induce active secretion of water and electrolytes into the lumen of the gut and inhibit the absorption of electrolytes and water by the colon. The increased volume of contents of the colon activates peristalsis.In the past, Aloes was used as an emmenagogue, small doses increasing menstrual flow. Aloe-emodin is reported to have anti-cancer activity in vitro. Aloes turns the urine red. The gel is used topically to aid wound healing and to relieve burns including sunburn; it encourages skin regeneration. It is also used for colonic irrigation. Homeopathy:The aloe has been used in medicine from early times both as a purgative and tonic. The Greeks and Romans thought aloe was good for stimulating bile flow in order to cure abdominal afflictions. In the early part of the 20th century, aloe was frequently used as a purgative. The homeopathic remedy was first proved by Dr. Constantine Hering in 1864.This remedy is used to treat congestion, especially in the pelvic organs, abdomen, and head; for example minor prolapse of the uterus, prostate problems, constipation, and headaches. It is also useful for diarrhea with painful urination brought on by food intolerance. This is a common remedy for people who have a very sedentary lifestyle, especially the elderly and those who suffer fatigue. Aloe is also useful for those who have drunk too much alcohol, especially beer.Healing properties: Extensive research since the 1930s in the US and Russia has shown that the clear gel has a dramatic ability to heal wounds, ulcers, and burns, putting a protective coat on the affected area and speeding up the rate of healing. This action is in part due to the presence of aloectin B, which stimulates the immune system.Actions Aloes: Stimulating laxative, purgative, cathartic, choleretic, emmenagogue, uterine stimulant, abortifacient, anthelmintic. Gel: soothing and healing to damaged tissuesSuggested Properties: Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and energy tonicMain Indications: Over 200 worldwide scientific research papers have been published on the effects of Aloe vera. The three main categories of research include anti-inflammatory, anti- bacterial, and anti-viral actions of Aloe vera. The juice is said to soothe digestive tract irritations such as colitis, ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome. Aloe's ability to encourage the release of pepsin (a gastric juice enzyme necessary for digestion) when the stomach is full is a possible reason for its ulcer-healing effects (Journal of the American Osteopathic Society, 1963, vol.62). In one study, oral use of Aloe for six months helped mitigate asthma symptoms in almost half of the participants. Eleven of twenty-seven patients studied who drank Aloe reported feeling better at the end of the study. Researchers think that results might be due to stimulation of the immune system, as well as naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agents in Aloe vera. Constipation. Topically for wounds and burnsIndicated for: Digestive tract irritations such as colitis, ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome, cleansing stomach, liver, kidneys, spleen, bladder and colon, arthritis, asthma, bladder and kidney infections, cancer, constipation, diverticular disorders, haemorrhoids, heartburn, heart disease, HIV, immune stimulation, indigestion, insomnia, kidney disease, leg cramps, leukemia, skin health, stomach distress, tumours, vaginitis, vaginal douche, viruses, white blood cell production and general health tonic.Applications and Combinations:Gel:Fresh: Apply the split leaf directly to burns, wounds, dry skin, fungal infections, and insect bites. Take up to 2 tsp in a glass of water or fruit juice, three times a day, as a tonic.Ointment: Split several leaves to collect a large quantity of gel, and boil it down to a thick paste. Store in clean jars in a cool place and use like the fresh leaves.Tonic Wine: Fermented aloe gel with honey and spices is known as kumaryasava in India and is used as a tonic for anemia, poor digestive function, and liver disorders.Inhalation: Use the gel in a steam inhalant for bronchial congestion.Leaves:Tincture: Use 1-3 ml per dose as an appetite stimulant or for constipation. The taste is unpleasant.Powder: Use 100 - 500 mg per dose or in capsules as a purgative for stubborn constipation and to stimulate bile flow.Combinations:Take in conjunction with antispasmodics or carminatives to counteract griping. Metal salts are often used to enhance its action (e.g. iron pills).Sunburn treatments: 20% or more aloe content Creams & Ointments: 20% or more aloe content Juices: 95% or more aloe content Beverages: 50% or more aloe content Drinks: 10% or more aloe content Capsules: 5-10% or more aloe contentAs far as dosages are concerned, start small and work your way up to a therapeutic dose. Juices are a good way to start, and pills are probably the worst way to go with aloe. Aloe pulp is 95% water, and if you consider the process of drying this, then sticking it back together into a pill form, you can see why pills are probably not the best way to go. Also, give your regimen time to work. Sometimes it takes a couple of months for you to see the real effects of aloe treatments, so don't give up too soon.Aloe is safe when used in moderation, but there are a few contraindications. If you have a heart problem and use any kind of digitalis medication, consult your doctor before using any aloe product internally, as the interaction may cause irregular heartbeat. Avoid aloe preparations if you are pregnant, breast feeding, or menstruating, as it can cause uterine contractions.Administration and Suggestions:How much to take:Preparation and Dosage:For constipation: a single 50-200 mg capsule of aloe latex can be taken each day for a maximum of ten days. Topically for minor burns, the stabilized aloe gel is applied to the affected area of skin three to five times per day; Treatment of more serious burns should only be done after first consulting a health care professional. For internal use of aloe gel, 30 ml three times per day is used by some people.Regulatory Status: GSL Schedule 1. Maximum dose 100mg; short-term use onlyAloes: 50-200mg, single dose at bedtimeConcentrated Compound Aloes Decoction B.P.C (1949): 4-15mlAloes Extract B.P.C 1949): 60-250mgAloes Tincture B.P.C (1949): 1:40 in 45% alcohol, 2-8mlAdditional Comments: The Aloe originates from tropical Africa, where related species are used as an antidote to poison arrow wounds. The Greeks and Romans used the gel for wounds. Aloes was a favoured purgative during the Middle Ages. It is used as a flavouring ingredient in low concentrations and aloe vera gel is an ingredient of many cosmetic preparations and sun creams. It is used as a paint to discourage nail biting due to its intensely bitter taste. Other species are also used medicinally; these include Aloe ferox (Mill.) or Cape Aloes, and Aloe perryi (Baker) or Socotrine or Zanzibar Aloes. Cultivated varieties are grown mainly for their reduced anthraquinone content.Side Effects and Cautions:Except in the rare person who is allergic to aloe, topical application of the gel is harmless. For any burn that blisters significantly or is otherwise severe, medical attention is absolutely essential. In some severe burns and wounds, aloe gel may actually impede healing. Laxative preparations, if used for more than ten consecutive days, can aggravate constipation and cause dependency. Constipation that does not resolve within a few days of use of laxatives may require medical attention.Caution: Overdosage can cause gastritis, diarrhoea and nephritis. As Aloes stimulates uterine contractions, it should be avoided during pregnancy. Also, because it is excreted in breast milk, it should be avoided during lactation as it may be purgative to the child. It should also be avoided in kidney disorders, haemorrhoids or irritable bowel conditions. Aloes should be taken for a maximum of 8-10 days.The topical use of aloe gel or aloe gel products does not usually produce adverse reactions or side effects. However, there are reports of skin burning following dermal abrasion for removal of acne scars. Rare instances of contact dermatitis (rash) have also been reported. Taking more than the recommended dose of aloe juice may produce a laxative effect. You can get too much of a good thing.If you are using oral corticosteroids, such as beclomethasone, methylprednisolone, or prednisone, it is important not to overuse or misuse Aloe vera juice. A potassium deficiency can develop, and you may experience toxic effects from the medication.Although it is removed, in practice Aloe vera juice may sometimes still contain tiny quantities of the laxative compound found in aloe latex. Should you begin to have cramps or diarrhea do not ingest any more of the juice.Allergies to aloe vera are very rare. Yet any food can be a potential allergen. Test a small amount on the inner arm to see if any reaction takes place. If no irritation on the skin is observed then it is generally tolerated. If ingestion causes diarrhea, then reduce the amount you ingest, increasing use slowly over several days until the desired amount is tolerated.Precautions:Aloe vera gel is generally safe for topical use, but it is best to apply it to a small area first to test for possible allergic reaction. Stinging and generalized dermatitis may result in individuals who are sensitive to it. The vast majority of the warnings apply only to products containing anthraquinones, such as aloin and barbaloin (as well as the numerous others), which are found in the latex layer of the plant. Aloe vera latex should not be used internally by women who are pregnant or lactating, or by children. This product can cause abortion or stimulate menstruation. It may pass into the milk of breastfeeding mothers. People who have abnormal kidney function, heart disease, or gastrointestinal diseases are best advised to avoid any product containing Aloe vera latex or anthraquinones. Prolonged, internal use in high doses may produce tolerance so that more is required to obtain the laxative effect. Be aware of the possibility that any Aloe vera product for internal use that is supposed to contain only the gel portion can become contaminated by the anthraquinones of the latex layer. For this reason, people who have a contraindication for using Aloe vera latex should use caution when taking an Aloe vera gel product internally.Side effects:Internal use of Aloe vera latex may turn the urine red, and may also cause abdominal pain or cramps when products containing anthraquinones are consumed.Interactions:Chronic internal use of products containing Aloe vera latex may increase the likelihood of potassium loss when used concomitantly with diuretics or corticosteroids. It may possibly compound the risk of toxicity when used with cardiac glycosides (both prescription and herbal types) and antiarrhythmic drugs. Absorption of other oral medications can be decreased. Aloe vera latex should not be used with other laxative herbs, which may also lead to excessive potassium loss.Internal use of Aloe vera gel can cause changes in blood sugar, so diabetics should monitor blood glucose levels during use, particularly if insulin or other pharmaceuticals are being used to control hyperglycemia.Topical Aloe vera may enhance the effect of topical corticosteroids and allow a reduction in the amount of the steroid being used.Safety and Toxicity:Aloe and Its ContentsToxicity:Aloe PolysaccharidesAcute Toxicity.LD50,Lethal dose,50 percent death,Rat.Oral.>5g/kg;Mice.Oral.>10 g/kg.Generally very safe.Sub-acute Toxicity:Mice.Oral dose at different dose:1g/kg,1.5g/kg,2g/kg,5g/kg/d,continuous for 14 days,All dose groups were observed abdominal expansion, abnormal breathing, reduced defecation;1g/kg,2g/kg groups 1 each,5g/kg group 2 died because block of gastric emptying.Dog taken 1.5g/kg/d no negative effects observed.Subchronic Toxicity:SD Rat.Oral.different dosages at 0.2g/kg/d,0.65g/kg/d,2g/kg/d,continuous 6 months,dog oral taken different dosages at 0.1g/kg/d,0.4g/kg/d,1.5g/kg/d,continuous 90 days,Blood, serum and urine, the results were in the normal range, gross anatomy and pathology examinations of the subjects and not the pathological damage.Mutagenic Data:800¦Ìl/plate,add S9/no add S9,Result:Ames negative.Chronic Toxicity:no report on 2 years cancer test on animals.Safety Dose:According to 100 times safety factor,Aloe Polysaccharides safety daily dosage:1.2 grams.Toxicity:Aloe PowderAcute Toxicity.LD50,Lethal dose,50 percent death,Mice.Oral.>10 g/kg.Generally very safe.Mutagenic Data:Ames test 5000¦Ìg/plate,negative,2.5,5,10 g / kgBW mouse bone marrow micronucleus, sperm abnormality test negative30 days feed test:8.1g/kgBW weight slower growth, the ratio of kidney/body weight increased. Scientific References:1.Aloe origned from arab words allcoh, a traditional herb from ancient Egypt, its effects identified by people of ancient Egypt and called as Secret Plant
Aloe vera is a plant similar to onions, garlic and asparagusu. It is amazing that extracts from the leaves of aloe vera can be found in many cosmetic products, particularly in creams, shampoos and conditioners after shaving. Almost every week the market triggers a new cream containing aloe vera leaf extract – aloe vera gel. The reputation of exceptional cosmetic effect of Aloe vera goes back a long way.Such products should be be used by Egyptians, even the famous Cleopatra. Products with aloe verashould be softened skin, moisturizes and also effects against aging of skin. Aloe plant from which produced aloe vera, is similar to a cactus, a plant found in Africa and the Arizona desert. Aloe Vera plants are normally popular as a Lily of deserts. They are popularly known for this because they have got a very good green color and many different kind of medical properties which is very good Aloe benefits. According to the studies and research of University of Maryland, it is proved that Aloe Vera itself has used from last many years for treatment of wounds and burns. People are also making use of Aloe Vera spices for constipation problems. All over the world there are more than 400 different Aloe Vera spices available. Aloe wildii is one another category of Aloe Vera spices which is exactly looking like other plants of Aloe Vera. It is looking like a grass and it belongs to Aloe family of Asphodelaceae. These spices are normally found in the smaller area of South and Eastern Africa. It is normally available like other succulent plants. It is also very much resistant to drought and it also contains very bright orange-red blossom.Aloe wildii is another kind of Aloe Vera spices which is exactly stores extra amount of water in its large and flashy leaves like others. If you try to cut down and open the leaf of this plant you can notice a green material which is loaded with lots of minerals, vitamins and other nutrients. These are all very good substances for healing properties. Apart from all this Aloe Vera kinds contains almost other 200 kind of nutrients like enzymes, sterols and amino acids. Once scientific study has also proved that polysaccharides are responsible for many kind of Aloe benefits. This substance is also available in this. There are some natural methods with that Aloe Vera is enhanced with Aloe PolyMax. Just because of this property it makes this plant potent and very effective source of polysaccharides.This Aloe Vera spices has got very small stems which are normally of 3 cms. Looking at the leaf of the Aloe wildii, they look like grass and approximate fifteen to thirty cm to 12 mm. They are very linear and they look very flashy. Their color is normally brownish-green. Looking at the lower half of the leafs they have white spot which are scattered towards the upper surface. This plant has got a very simple inflorescence which gets erected to 50 cm in the height but this can happen occasionally. Like other Aloe Vera spices this has also got many type of health benefits. This contains lots of vitamins, amino acids and different kind of amino acids. There are some enzymes and natural sugars contained in it. This is great Aloe benefits.Is Aloe Vera useful in treating X-ray burns, supporting surgical recovery, treating sunburn. Plant Profile: Aloe veraLiliaceae Description:Although originating in the hot and arid climes of northern Africa, Aloe Vera is no longer an exotic stranger to most of us. Not only do we see it advertised as a common ingredient in a multitude of household products, from dishwashing liquid to latex gloves and even razors, but many of us have in fact encountered the plant itself. Aloe Vera is a perennial succulent, undemanding and not particularly eye-catching, vaguely resembling a small version of the century plant that is such a common sight in the North American Southwest. However, despite the superficial similarities, Aloe is an entirely different species of plant. In fact, it is a member of the Lily family and distantly related to onions, garlic and asparagus. Its fleshy, succulent leaves contain a clear, gooey gel. The leaf margins bear 'sharp teeth' which act as quite an effective deterrent against many casually browsing animals. Aloe loves hot and dry conditions and appears to wilt only if it receives excessive amounts of water or if exposed to freezing temperatures. If grown in the right conditions, that is -mostly ignored, the plant will do fine. If it is really happy with its care and location it may even send up a central shoot once a year with short tubular yellowish flowers growing around the top to middle part of the spike. There are about 400 species in the genus Aloe, of which Aloe Vera is considered medicinally the most useful. Mature plants of about 4-5 years of age provide the most potent healing compounds. Ecology:Originally Aloe Vera is native to arid regions of north-eastern and southern parts of Africa and Madagascar. Thanks to its tremendous value as a healing plant, it quickly spread to arid regions throughout the world. Today it is widely cultivated in similar environments around the world, including Mexico, USA, Japan and China. Historyaloe (98K)As is often the case with so called 'miracle plants' their exaggerated reputation actually discredits them. Aloe Vera is a truly wonderful plant with no shortage of members for its fan club. It has a very long and well established reputation as a healing plant, particularly for skin conditions, minor cuts and abrasions. The dried latex, which is not the same as the gel, but instead derives from the yellow juice contained in the pericyclic tubules of the inner leaf is a well known laxative.Despite the fact that Aloe has been in documented use for at least 3500 years, controversial and contradictory information about this plant abounds. The earliest reference to its use can be found in the famous Egyptian Ebers Papyrus, which dates back to 1500 BC and is widely regarded as one of the earliest documents on what was to become the western Materia Medica. However, it is more than likely that it has been commonly used for centuries before it was recorded. In fact, it seems more likely that Aloe was such a commonly used plant, that earlier documents (of which few have survived) never even bothered to mention it. In the hot and dry countries of the Mediterranean and the Middle East Aloe Vera served as a soothing household remedy for sunburns and moisturizing cosmetic lotion.Some of the confusion one encounters when researching this plant, stems from the fact that it is still frequently mistaken for lignum Aloes or Wood-Aloes, which, however, is an entirely different species of plant altogether. Although abundantly mentioned in the Bible as an incense ingredient and constituent of embalming oils, Wood-Aloes in fact is not even a Mediterranean plant. Also known as Agarwood, it is a tree of the genus Aquilaria and native to Southeast Asia. While the latex of Aloe Vera does dry and transforms into a hard substance, which is sometimes referred to as Aloe resin, it is not a particularly aromatic substance and has never been used in incense blending.As mentioned above, Aloe Vera's best known and most widely documented use is as an external topical application - usually in the form of a commercially produced gel. However, it must be said that commercial Aloe Vera gels are not quite the same as the fresh gel that one can squeeze from a freshly cut leaf. The reason for this is simple. The natural jelly-like substance is not very stable and deteriorates quickly once the leaf has been damaged. Thus commercial producers have to process it in some way in order to preserve its freshness and extend its shelf-life. But processing rarely enhances a plant's properties. More often it reduces a miraculous healing herb to a mediocre substance that may still give you some benefit if you are lucky. But by the time this processed gel has been even further adulterated to make it suitable as an ingredient for creams and lotions, you can be fairly certain that the remaining benefit, if any, will be minimal.And this sheds some light on some of the rather puzzling research results: although Aloe Vera has a glowing reputation in folk usage, when tested in laboratories the results have often been fairly disappointing. Why would that be? The answer seems to lie not so much with the plant, but in the processing methods. Laboratory research rarely tests plants for their efficiency when used in traditional ways. Instead, keen to exploit a plant's 'active principle', extracts are concocted that are supposed to concentrate the healing principles - unfortunately the plants' natural synergy is destroyed in the process, as some supposedly inactive principles are discarded. Also, where actual gel has been used instead of extracted components, the quality of gel used is questionable. Conventional methods of stabilizing and preserving Aloe gel involve pasteurizing procedures that heat the gel to a high temperature, which destroys many of the more sensitive constituents, and adding preservatives, which further adulterate the final product. So, while many research results seem to demonstrate that much of Aloe's benefits may be hype, what they actually show is that we lack proper processing methods that can preserve as closely as possible the composition of fresh Aloe Vera gel.aloe gelA recent trend has popularized 'Aloe vera juice' (as well as a myriad of spin off products that contain the juice). This product is always processed, and often mixed with all kinds of other flavourings of dubious origin. In a natural form, Aloe juice (gel) is not very palatable - it is bitter and not exactly a pleasure to swallow, which is probably why it is not usually found mentioned as a healthful drink in our folk medicine repertoires, but rather as an emergency measure or 'heroic' medicine to treat parasitic intestinal or stomach infections.Thus all Aloe Vera juice found in commerce has been processed, not only to make it more palatable but also to extend its shelf life. Aloe Vera gel quickly deteriorates once extracted. In fact the deterioration process starts the minute the leaves are cut. Thus, even handling during the harvest is of utmost importance. Once cut, removing the green, outer skin as quickly and efficiently as possible is the first step, as the breakdown of the gel is triggered by enzymes that are released when the outer, green skin in damaged.Traditionally the leaves are cut and taken to a processing facility as quickly as possible, and ideally, in a refrigerated truck. Here the leaves are filleted by hand to remove the outer, green skin. However, unfortunately most of the beneficial compounds are concentrated just beneath that outer skin. Thus, filleting removes these compounds and discards them along with the skin.More efficient processing methods have recently been developed that utilize the whole leaf and just remove the green parts of the leaf in a cold process involving a cellulose dissolving substance. This retains the biochemical activity of the Aloe Vera Leaf in its integrity. The resulting gel is of a yellow color as it still retains the aloin, which is the bitter, laxative compound. Further processing involves adding various innoxiously oxygen scavenging chemicals. Any oxygen present in the gel promotes breakdown and deterioration as well as providing a life support system for aerobic bacteria to develop. Then the pulp is removed from the liquid part, the aloin is filtered out with the addition of a carbon compound which is subsequently removed. To destroy any anaerobic bacteria the liquid is passed through tubes in which it is exposed to ultraviolet light.This method still requires stabilizing compounds to be added to the final product, but it is a great improvement to conventional extraction processes that processed only the gel and used heat treatments in order to sterilize the liquid.aloe leafAnother whole leaf extraction method involves the same cold process leaf processing in the first step, but then utilizes short duration low temperature controlled sterilization techniques that kill off bacteria without the addition of chemicals. The resulting gel is then concentrated in a vacuum chamber and subsequently dehydrated into a water soluble compound that retains the biochemical activity indefinitely without the addition of any preservatives. This method is currently regarded as the most efficient method, even though heat is used in the process. The heating process is closely controlled and it never reaches more than 65 deg or is applied over periods longer than 15 minutes at a time. Longer exposure times or higher temperatures would deteriorate the final product.Thus it is very important to read the label of your aloe product carefully and research the methods of extraction and actual composition of the final product as there are huge differences between manufacturers.A self-regulating body of Aloe Vera producers has been established which certifies companies products according to their standards of quality control. Their seal of approval gives a certain degree of reassurance that the products do contain what their labels claim. However, even between certified companies there are differences which are largely due to different methods of processing that are used. Medicinal UsesParts used:resin, gel extracted from the leafConstituents:Hydroxyanthracene derivatives of the anthrone type (principally barbaloin); 7-hydroxyaloin isomers, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and their glycosides; chromone derivatives (aloesin and its derivatives aloeresins A and C, and the aglycone aloesone. Gel: glucomannan (a polysaccharide), steroids, organic acids, enzymes, antibiotic principles, amino acids, saponins, minerals.Actions:latex: cathartic, laxative, emmanogogue, digestive stimulant Gel: immune system stimulant, skin healing, anti-irritant, moisturizing, anti-cancer IndicationsTraditionally Aloe Vera gel is used as a soothing topical application for sunburns and minor burns, abrasions, acne, psoriasis, shingles and even cold sores. The gel can be squeezed directly from the fresh leaf and applied directly to affected areas. Its skin repair qualities on burns, and sub burns is truly remarkable - healing occurs quickly and without scarring. In fact, aloe vera is also used to reduce scarring and stretch marks. Aloe vera shows even seems to protect the skin against the immune suppressant effect of ulta violet rays of the sun - thus it is not only an excellent 'after sun care' ingredient, but may also be useful as a protective sunscreen lotion. It is an excellent additive for cosmetic preparations as it can moisturize and rejuvenate the skin by stimulating synthesis of elastin and collagen.External application of aloe gel penetrates the skin directly and produces a soothing, pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effect on arthritic joints and tendonitis.For internal use Aloe Vera latex preparations are usually mixed with antispasmodic herbs to reduce the cramping effect of its laxative action. Used by itself it would produce a rather cathartic and cramping effect. Aloe vera latex also stimulates the uterus and promotes menstrual flow. Pregnant women should avoid the use of Aloe vera as a laxative.Internally high quality Aloe vera juice preparations can stimulate the immune system. Laboratory studies on mice have shown Aloe to be effective in the treatment of certain types of cancer and HIV, and further studies are on the way.Aloe juice seems to have an overall healing and balancing effect on the digestive system, improving absorption of nutrients and eliminating toxins. This improves overall cell nutrition and activates the body's own healing powers. It can relieve gastro-intestinal problems associated with peptic or duodenal ulcers, improve regularity and enhance energy levels. It is also used to soothe colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. In fact many chronic conditions have a prominent digestive imbalance component, which triggers secondary symptoms due to malabsorption and subsequent cellular malnutrition. Aloe vera juice can help to restore balance to the digestive system.Furthermore, aloe vera juice seems to have a beneficial effect on the liver and kidney. It appears to reduce levels of blood lipids that can clog up the arteries and lead to coronary heart disease. Aloe vera also seems to be able to reduces blood sugar levels, which can make it a useful nutritional supplement for diabetes sufferers. Caution:Do not use Aloe Vera based laxative during pregnancy. Aloe Vera juice may also be adulterated or contain levels of aloin above what would be deemed safe during pregnancy.If you are on prescription medication consult with your health advisor regarding possible interference reactions between internal use of Aloe Vera and other medicines.The quality of Aloe vera gel or juice very much depends on the production process and some aloe vera products currently on the market have little or no medicinal value. Research your source carefully before spending a lot of money on what may essentially turn out to be an inert substance. Whole leaf extractions are recommended. Look for the International Aloe Science Council certificate for assurance on content and purity. Grow your ownEverybody should have an Aloe Vera plant growing on their kitchen window sill. It is the best instant burn remedy you can have at hand. Growing Aloe Vera is easy, as it is a very undemanding plant. Just don't over-water it and protect it against freezing temperatures. It loves the sun, but will grow in semi-shade as well. It does not need particularly rich soil. Well draining, sandy soil will do. Home-made cosmeticsWhen making your own skin care preparations and you want to incorporate the healing benefits of Aloe vera, you can use the gel to replace all or a portion of the amount of liquid your recipe calls for. However, be aware that unprocessed Aloe vera gel is not very stable and won't keep long, so make small batches only, store it in the fridge and use up quickly. For maximum benefit of Aloe Vera as an ingredient of skin care preparations such products should contain at least 20-40% of gel. Or simply cut off a leaf and rub it straight on the skin.At the turn of the 20th century Sir George Watts wrote a series of annual works entitled ‘A Dictionary of Economic Products of India”.In these writings he included a section on Aloe Vera in which he credited the plant with no fewer than 43 different uses including external use, with it’s superior moisturising properties and internal use as an exceptionally nutritional health drink.Doctors and scientists had been unable to explain or duplicate the plant’s healing properties until the late 1960’s when Dr. Bill Coates, a pharmacist from Dallas, Texas, discovered a method to extract and stabilise the Aloe Vera gel from the leaves using a process which retained the full potency of this amazing healing plant.The list of ailments Aloe Vera is used for in holistic medicine is even longer than the list of nutrients. It has been successfully used in the healing process of burns, wounds, gastric ulcers, and as a treatment for diabetes and diabetic wounds to name but a few.A polysaccharide in Aloe Vera, called Gluco-mannan, works as an anti-inflammatory, other components of Aloe Vera have shown anti-viral properties.Among its other healing ingredients, Aloe Vera contains salicylic acid, which is the main content of aspirin. The salicylic acid and magnesium in Aloe Vera are thought to work together for an analgesic effect on burns.Is Aloe Vera useful in treating X-ray burns?Aloe Vera was used in 1935 to treat third-degree X-ray burns, and more modern medicine uses it to treat atomic radiation burns. Applied to wounds, the gel not only reduces pain and infection, it stimulates cell regeneration and therefore the growth of new tissue and skin. Scarring can be reduced significantly by using Aloe Vera.According to a report in the Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, Aloe Vera reduces surgical recovery time.Eighteen acne patients underwent facial dermabrasion surgery, in which lesions are scraped away. Dressings were applied to their faces, with half of each person’s face receiving the standard dressing coated with surgical gel, and the other half with Aloe Vera added to this dressing.The half of the face treated with Aloe Vera healed approximately 72 hours faster than the other side which had just the standard dressing without Aloe Vera!This Aloe Vera kinds are normally used in all types of juices and gel. Even they are also available in concentrated form like capsules. This are used for treatment of many health problems. Taking this Aloe Vera spices regularly means it helps in healing of ulcers and they also help in making your digestive system smooth. Juice created from this also improves blood circulation. Aloe Vera spices can make person’s life very healthy.Aloe vera can be found in about 500 different species. The main species of Aloe are the following: Aloe Barbadensis Miller, or Curacao Aloe, Aloe perry-Baker or Socotrine Aloe, Cape Aloe ferax-Aloe and Aloe arborescens. Most sorts of the aloe plant are non-poisonous, but some species containing toxins like poison in hemlock and they are highly toxic. The best known and most medically interesting is Aloe Barbadensis. Fresh juice and gel of aloe vera. When cut fresh leafes, ending out sticky juice. Juice can be dried by heat treatment. The rest of the inside of leaf contains plant’s mucilage and gel that are used to treat wounds, cuts, burns, abrasions and ulcers. In 1693 the merchants bring aloe vera in London and until 1843 they imported huge amounts of aloe vera, which were intended primarily for the treatment of wounds in medicine. In the 18th and 19th century was aloe vera gel usually provided medicinal product and its popularity and phenomenon has been preserved in the name Aloe Vera to this day.
Aloe Vera is a cactus-like plant growing in the warmer climates of the world and are described as succulents. Aloe vera is a very popular herbal remedy. The Aloe vera plant (also called Aloe barbadensis) is unique among plants for its importance in natural skin care. The skin is the largest organ in the human body and it really takes a beating. Aloe Vera can help alleviate this beating. Aloe vera contains burn healing effects, anti-inflammatory properties, scar reducing properties and wounds.Aloe vera pulp is the clear, thick substance inside of the Aloe vera leaf. (It is often called Aloe vera gel, but it is usually treated before it is used in cosmetics). Aloe vera juice is made by liquifying Aloe vera pulp. Aloe vera gel is made by adding a thickener such as irish moss to Aloe vera juice. Aloe vera oil is made by extracting oil-soluble portions of the Aloe vera plant into a light vegetable oil, such as safflower oil. Aloe vera juice, gel and oil can be used in cosmetics.Aloe is used in many skin care products because of its ability to stimulate healthy cell growth and repair damaged tissues. Most people think of using Aloe only on their skin because that is all they know about.Benefits of Aloe Vera to the Skin:Aloe vera is beneficial for cracked and dry skin. Aloe vera oil can be used on the dry skin to make the skin normal and shiny. Aloe Vera acts as a natural barrier and shields our skin from dangerous toxins. Aloe vera is helpful for frostbite, burns, insect bites, blisters and allergic reactions. All the Aloe vera products are used as a part of skin treatment regimen and keep the skin healthy. Aloe vera products contain the highest concentrations of healing agent which is beneficial for the skin. It makes the skin smooth and glowing. It relieves heat on the skin caused by sunburn. Aloe vera is used for treating various skin conditions such as eczema, burns, psoriasis, inflammations, wounds etc. It destroys bacteria that try to invade cuts or open wounds. It forms a protective barrier around achy and sore joints and muscles. It is an excellent skin moisturizer that keeps the skin flexible by giving oxygen to the cells which in turn increases the strength and synthesis of skin tissue. The products of Aloe vera are very popular among the customers due to the moisturizing properties which are best for the skin or skin disorders. Aloe vera improves the ability of the skin so that it can hydrate itself. It is helpful in removing dead skin cells and has the ability for effective penetration and transports healthy substances through the skin. It is beneficial for the cosmetic products such as make up, anti-wrinkle creams, facial masks, skin conditioners and lipsticks. Aloe vera is useful for preventing the aging of the skin. It nourishes the skin and tissues with body-loving nutrients such as vitamin E and C. Aloe vera gel is helpful in improving the lesions. It lightens dark spots on the face and reduces the intensity of pigmentation. It soothes itching and helps restore skin's natural beauty.Note: Herbal products and dietary supplements can have pharmacological effects, may produce adverse reactions in some people, and could interact with over-the-counter and prescription medications you may take. Discuss with your physician your decision to use any herbal product. Oats and Aloe Vera ExfoliantIngredientsGround oats – One tablespoon Ground almonds – One full tablespoon Honey – One tablespoon Aloe Vera gel – One tablespoonMethodFirst of all, one should keep all the ingredients in a big bowl and gently mix them. Apply this mixture on the face and neck before performing toning and after cleansing. The person should apply this mixture by using his hands in circular motions. When the mixture gets dried, then one should rinse it off with lukewarm water. This mixture should be applied only after using facial mask.Silky – Smooth Aloe Vera Skin Care Body CreamIngredientsLanolin – 1 full teaspoon Gel of aloe Vera – 1 full cup Coconut oil – 1/3 cup Almond oil – ¾ cup Beeswax – ¾ ounce Essential oil – 1 – ½ teaspoons Vitamin E lubricate – 1 full teaspoonMethodFirst of all, aloe Vera gel, lanolin and vitamin E oil should be mixed by using a blender or a food processor. One should take a coconut oil and microwave beeswax in a large container and then heat it for about half a minute and then mix it with other ingredients. Then the mixture should be again heated for about ten seconds till the large pieces melts completely. Then this mixture should be mixed in almond oil and again heat it if needed. Then use a blender or processor for making it thin. After the mixing of oil, the cream turns into white color. Then mix the liquefied oils and if one obtains mayonnaise like constancy, then immediately discontinue the blender or food processor. Then pour the cream into the jars and one can notice that the lotion has become thick. Then apply this mixture on the face which gently absorbs by the skin without leaving any residue on the skin’s surface.Aloe Vera Skin TonerFirst of all, a cotton ball should be soaked in an aloe Vera gel and then apply it on the face to eliminate excess oil and provides freshness to the skin. One can apply this after moisturizer and can use it daily. It is perfect for normal and oily skin. If one is having sensitive skin, then the gel should be divided into 50 – 50 ratio along with spring water. One can also apply aloe Vera juice.Aloe Vera Face Mask for Soothing and HealingIngredientsOne drop of Rose essential oil Three tablespoons pure and certified organic aloe Vera sap One drop of Helycrisum essential oilMethodAll the ingredients should be mixed well and then apply it on the face and neck. Then leave this mixture for few minutes and then wash off with lukewarm water. Let it dry and then apply healing and soothing aromatic blend, which is prepared in a bottle filled with vegetable oil and then mix with one drop of Neroli oil and three drops of lavender oil. It is very helpful for sensitive and dry skin and can be used after taking sunbath.Exfoliating Foot MaskIngredientsHalf cup of oatmeal Half cup of cornmeal Four tablespoons of aloe Vera gel Half cup of unscented body lotionMethodPut all the ingredients in a big bowl and then mix them properly. Apply this paste on the feet and rub, beginning from the toes to ankle and then cure it.Ref: http://www.beautyfeast.com/
Did You Know?
Did you know that our Aloe is 100% organic? Or that it is only grown and bottled right here in the USA? That our Aloe Vera is picked by hand and vegan certified?